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Language
Standard Library Headers
Freestanding and hosted implementations
Named requirements
Language support library
Concepts library(C++20)
Diagnostics library
Utilities library
Strings library
Containers library
Iterators library
Ranges library(C++20)
Algorithms library
Numerics library
Localizations library
Input/output library
Filesystem library(C++17)
Regular expressions library(C++11)
Atomic operations library(C++11)
Thread support library(C++11)
Technical Specifications

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Algorithm library

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Constrained algorithms and algorithms on ranges(C++20)
Constrained algorithms: std::ranges::copy, std::ranges::sort, ...
Execution policies (C++17)
Non-modifying sequence operations
(C++11)(C++11)(C++11)
(C++17)
(C++11)
(C++20)

Modifying sequence operations
(C++11)
(C++11)
(C++11)
(C++11)
(C++20)(C++20)
(C++17)

(until C++17)

(C++11)

Operations on uninitialized storage
(C++17)
(C++17)
(C++11)
(C++17)
(C++17)
(C++17)
(C++17)

(C++17)
(C++17)
(C++17)

(C++20)
Partitioning operations
(C++11)
Sorting operations
(C++11)
(C++11)

Binary search operations
Set operations (on sorted ranges)

Heap operations
(C++11)
(C++11)
Minimum/maximum operations
(C++11)
(C++11)
Permutations
(C++11)
Numeric operations
(C++11)
(C++17)
(C++17)
(C++17)
(C++17)

(C++17)
(C++17)
C library
Defined in header <algorithm>
(1)
template<class ForwardIt, class T >
ForwardIt remove( ForwardIt first, ForwardIt last, const T& value );
(until C++20)
template<class ForwardIt, class T >
constexpr ForwardIt remove( ForwardIt first, ForwardIt last, const T& value );
(since C++20)
template<class ExecutionPolicy, class ForwardIt, class T >
ForwardIt remove( ExecutionPolicy&& policy, ForwardIt first, ForwardIt last, const T& value );
(2) (since C++17)
(3)
template<class ForwardIt, class UnaryPredicate >
ForwardIt remove_if( ForwardIt first, ForwardIt last, UnaryPredicate p );
(until C++20)
template<class ForwardIt, class UnaryPredicate >
constexpr ForwardIt remove_if( ForwardIt first, ForwardIt last, UnaryPredicate p );
(since C++20)
template<class ExecutionPolicy, class ForwardIt, class UnaryPredicate >
ForwardIt remove_if( ExecutionPolicy&& policy, ForwardIt first, ForwardIt last, UnaryPredicate p );
(4) (since C++17)

Removes all elements satisfying specific criteria from the range [first, last) and returns a past-the-end iterator for the new end of the range.

1) Removes all elements that are equal to value, using operator to compare them.
3) Removes all elements for which predicate p returns true.

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2,4) Same as (1,3), but executed according to policy. These overloads do not participate in overload resolution unless std::is_execution_policy_v<std::decay_t<ExecutionPolicy>>(until C++20)std::is_execution_policy_v<std::remove_cvref_t<ExecutionPolicy>>(since C++20) is true.

Removing is done by shifting (by means of move assignment) the elements in the range in such a way that the elements that are not to be removed appear in the beginning of the range. Relative order of the elements that remain is preserved and the physical size of the container is unchanged. Iterators pointing to an element between the new logical end and the physical end of the range are still dereferenceable, but the elements themselves have unspecified values (as per MoveAssignable post-condition). A call to remove is typically followed by a call to a container's erase method, which erases the unspecified values and reduces the physical size of the container to match its new logical size.

[edit]Parameters

first, last - the range of elements to process
value - the value of elements to remove
policy - the execution policy to use. See execution policy for details.
p - unary predicate which returns ​true if the element should be removed.

The expression p(v) must be convertible to bool for every argument v of type (possibly const) VT, where VT is the value type of ForwardIt, regardless of value category, and must not modify v. Thus, a parameter type of VT&is not allowed, nor is VT unless for VT a move is equivalent to a copy(since C++11).​

Type requirements
-ForwardIt must meet the requirements of LegacyForwardIterator.
-The type of dereferenced ForwardIt must meet the requirements of MoveAssignable.
-UnaryPredicate must meet the requirements of Predicate.

[edit]Return value

Past-the-end iterator for the new range of values (if this is not end, then it points to an unspecified value, and so do iterators to any values between this iterator and end).

[edit]Complexity

Exactly std::distance(first, last) applications of the predicate.

[edit]Exceptions

The overloads with a template parameter named ExecutionPolicy report errors as follows:

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  • If execution of a function invoked as part of the algorithm throws an exception and ExecutionPolicy is one of the standard policies, std::terminate is called. For any other ExecutionPolicy, the behavior is implementation-defined.
  • If the algorithm fails to allocate memory, std::bad_alloc is thrown.

[edit]Notes

The similarly-named container member functions list::remove, list::remove_if, forward_list::remove, and forward_list::remove_if erase the removed elements.

These algorithms cannot be used with associative containers such as std::set and std::map because ForwardIt does not dereference to a MoveAssignable type (the keys in these containers are not modifiable).

The standard library also defines an overload of std::remove taking const char*, used to delete files: std::remove.

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Because std::remove takes value by reference, it can have unexpected behavior if it is a reference to an element of the range [first, last).

[edit]Possible implementation

First version
Second version

[edit]Examples

The following code removes all spaces from a string by shifting all non-space characters to the left and then erasing the extra. This is an example of erase-remove idiom.

Output:

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[edit]See also

copies a range of elements omitting those that satisfy specific criteria
(function template)[edit]
removes consecutive duplicate elements in a range
(function template)[edit]
(C++20)(C++20)
removes elements satisfying specific criteria
(niebloid)[edit]

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